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Photographic lenses

As we have seen, a single glass lens creates a picture of greater quality than a pinhole,


Image sharpness is weak and is not maintained consistently across the entire image, even when the subject is at a single distance.


Single lenses often deform shapes, create unusual colored fringes, or give a general "hazy" appearance.


These findings give a very special impression that has sometimes been described as "atmospheric" or "romantic".


in the sense that they are more remote from reality than classical detailed and sharp photography and may seem «of another world».


That's not always what you want from an image, so usually, you'll want to use a lens able to produce high-quality image clarity and detail.


Some of the effects created by the pinhole or single-lens camera can be obtained by adding broadcasters or filters to the camera or by subsequent manipulation of the numeric results or at the printing stage.


However, differences exist and you should explore all options before deciding on your approach.


The main principle of the design and production of photographic equipment is to produce lenses that minimize optical defects.


while achieving the maximum possible resolution of image detail and brightness.


For this purpose, camera manufacturers use a range of special optical lenses, each type of glass having different refractive and dispersion properties.


A photographic lens is composed of a series of elements of different forms and different types of glass to help neutralize aberrations.


A normal focal length camera lens usually has five to eight elements.


Focal distance and corner of the view.


The lenses can capture various quantities of the scene in front of them from a very wide angle to an extremely narrow view.


The natural field of view of the human eye covers approximately 45 degrees, so a camera lens covering this angle is considered normal or "standard".


It is roughly equal to the diagonal of the camera's frame format.


In other words:

  • G For a 35mm (24×36mm) camera, a lens of around 50mm focal length is standard.

  • G For a 60×70mm in a roll film camera, a standard lens is about 80–105 mm.

  • G For APS (17×30mm) picture size cameras, the normal lens is 25mm.

  • G Compact digital cameras have a tiny 4.8×6.4mm sensor. A standard lens is typically only 6–10mm.

  • G Professional digital SLRs have larger sensors at around 15×22.5mm, meaning a standard lens is around 28mm. G A few very high-end professional digital SLRs have so-called full frame sensors of 24×36mm, so using 50mm as standard like a 35mm film camera.

  • G For a 5×4 inch plate camera, a standard lens is 150mm.

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